How to approach a dog-
As we are often much bigger in size than dogs, sometimes we can seem a little scary and daunting to them. Consider how you feel when you first meet someone-shy, nervous or worried perhaps? Remember this when approaching a dog. Follow the simple guidelines to help say "hello" to a do in a friendly way.
1- Always ask the dog's owner if you can stroke the dog before you actually do. They will know whether their dog is friendly or not. This is the most important point to remember.
2- Walk up to the dog calmly and quietly-don't shout or scream as you may frighten the dog.
3- Curl your hand into a fist and gently offer it to the dog to sniff first (this is a dog's way of saying hello to another dog).
4- Stroke the dog under the chin, where he can see you (this will be less scary to the dog). Don't try and pat him from behind as yo may startle him.
IMPORTANT: NEVER approach a loose dog without it's owner-the dog may not be friendly with children.
What to do if you are frightened by a dog
Generally dogs running around in the park will be interested in you too, as you are having fun-particularly if you are perhaps playing with friends. This may make them want to come and join in-and sometimes they may rush over and jump up at you, scaring you. The best way to behave in this situation is listed below:
1- Drop anything you are holding (this may have been what attracted the dog to you in the first place.
2- Don't run away from the dog-he may think it's a game and run after your.
3- Stand still, fold your arms and don't move. Don't make lots of noise, just act bored; waving your arms around lots could scare the dog or attract his attention.
4- If a dog knocks you over- roll into a ball, keeping your head and arms tucked in.
5- Do not move until the dog has got bored and has gone away. You can them slowly move backwards-keeping an eye on the dog. If the dog does return, follow steps one to five again.
IMPORTANT: If the dog takes your toy ask mom or dad, or the adult who came with you to try and help to get it back. DO NOT try it yourself.
Understanding a dog's body language
Dogs "Speak" using their own vocabulary (noises such as bark or growl), body language and facial expressions. These signals, can easily be misread by humans. The more we can understand the system they use to communicate, the easier it is to understand their behavior. Over the next few pages, let's consider the following...
The playful dog
Most dogs enjoy playing with people but there will be times when they may want to sleep instead or not be disturbed. Let's consider the body language of a playful dog so that the signs become clearer when a dg wants to play.
1- His eyes are wide open (dilated), 2- His ears relaxed, 3- The from end of his body is lowered to the floor and the rear end is up in the air. This is called a "play-bow", 4- His tail is wagging furiously, 5- He is barking to try and attract your attention and get you to join in.
Fantastic Fact: Dogs have nearly 100 different facial expressions and they use these to help with communication.
IMPORTANT: If a dog gets over excited when playing with you, you should simple stop playing with him. This will teach him better manners and he will know what is acceptable next time.
The Scared Dog
Dogs can find situations and new people scary, in the same way as we can . Look at the signals a dog is giving and try to remember them just in case you ever meet a scared dog.
1- His ears are low and flat on his head, 2- His eyes will be very big and round (dilated), 3- He is panting and may bark, growl and snarl in fear, 4- His tail is tucked down tightly between legs, 5- His body is trembling, shivering and drawn back into cowering position with an arched back, 6- He is trying to back away from you.
IMPORTANT: Consider how you would feel in a scary situation and then think about the dog and how it could be feeling as you approach.
The Angry Dog
Dogs can get angry in all sorts of situations. Look at the signals the dog is giving to show he is not happy and try to remember them.
1- He is maintaining eye contact with you through narrow eyes, 2- His mouth has lips apart, drawn back from the teeth-snarling and possibly growling, 3- His body is tense and stiff, 4- His tail is stiff, straight and slightly over his back, 5- His hackles (hair on the back of the neck) are standing up. 6- His ears are alert and forward.
IMPORTANT: Find an adult to help you if you really need to disturb or move a dog.
Any dog lover knows that panting is a typical doggie behavior. But you may wonder why it occurs, or whether your pet’s panting is excessive or unusual. Researchers have looked at dog panting to determine its causes; what they discovered may surprise you.
Moderate to rapid open-mouthed respiration is a normal dog behavior that lowers body temperature and also gets oxygen into the puppy’s bloodstream.
The panting dog breathes with his mouth open and tongue somewhat protruding.
Panting should not be confused with labored breathing. Labored breathing is characterized by strained respiration and may be accompanied by sounds of distress like crying or whining, or whistles from the nostrils or windpipe due to blockage.
Most of us pant from time to time as we run, climb stairs, or otherwise exert ourselves. While dogs may pant while they exercise, though, they do it for different reasons. What’s more, no matter how fast they may pant, dogs won’t experience the dizziness of hyperventilation.
Panting as a cooling mechanism is necessary because dogs do not have an effective system of sweat glands like people do. Instead, dogs cool their bodies using the evaporation of moisture from the mouth and tongue, and by exchanging the hot air of their lungs with cooler external air.
When the outside air temperature is the same or higher than the puppy’s normal body temperature of 102 degrees, panting won’t effectively cool off the puppy and can lead to heat stroke. Hot puppies may also resort to digging to scoop out cool places to rest.
Why Dogs Bark
It is important to understand that dogs may bark for a variety of reasons.
They do not bark just to annoy you and your neighbors, nor do they bark for spite or revenge. Dogs don’t bark just because they can (though it might seem that way at times).
Certain dog breeds bark more than others. In fact, some types of dogs were actually bred to be barkers. This may be so they could alert people about dangers, protect homes, or even scare prey out of hiding for hunters. On the flip side, the Basenji does not bark at all (though the breed can vocalize in other ways).
If you listen closely, you will eventually learn the sounds of your dog’s different barks. You may then be able to figure out what each bark means. Understanding the reason why your dog barks is the first step towards controlling the behavior.
In general, dogs will most commonly bark for the following reasons:
Why Dogs Lean on People
The answer is as simple as it seems: dogs lean on people because they want to be close to them.
By nature, dogs are social animals. Most dogs enjoy physical contact with their humans. While smaller dogs can be picked up and cuddled (which might be part of the reason they jump) bigger dogs do what they can to get close. Some dogs are so affectionate that it seems they are trying to somehow get inside of us! They lean in with all their weight. Some sit on our feet, sleep with their paws on us, and snuggle up on the couch or bed.
Some sources claim that leaning is a sign of dominance in dogs. However, dog behavior experts have proven that the old canine dominance theories are incorrect. Dominance is not a personality trait. Dogs do not lean on us to assert any kind of dominance.
Some also say that leaning a way for dogs to take advantage of their humans. And while dogs can figure out how to elicit a certain response in us, it’s not because they are manipulative. It’s because we have shown them (perhaps inadvertently) that specific behaviors result in certain responses from us.
So, if you give your dog any kind of attention (good or bad) when she leans, then she will lean on you whenever she wants attention.
In some cases, leaning may be a sign of fear or insecurity. It’s true that dogs may cower or hide behind us when they are in fear, but that dog usually exhibits other signs of fear in addition to leaning.
Dogs in need of confidence may be fearful or insecure. If you think this is the case with your dog, then it’s best to ignore the leaning (don’t encourage or discourage it). Use training to boost your dog’s confidence.
much longer to understand what “leave it” means.
Once your dog is consistently backing away from your hand, you can make things more difficult by increasing the time you make him wait for the treat. In the beginning, you should give the dog a treat the second he pulls back from your hand. You can slowly add a few seconds until you are able to go several minutes while your dog waits patiently for his treat.
Next, you can begin to move the treat. Put it on the floor a foot or two away from your dog, but keep your hand close enough to cover it should your dog try to take it. The “leave it” command is used to prevent your dog from picking things up. It allows you to tell your dog not to touch the things that you don’t want him to have, like a child’s toy or a dirty tissue or any one of the hundreds of things he may try to pick up and chew. This command can also keep your dog from eating something that might be harmful to him.
“Leave it” is fairly easy to teach. Here’s how to do it:
All you need to train your dog “leave it” is a handful of bite-sized treats, and a quiet area. If you are clicker training, you will also need your clicker.
Training sessions should be kept short and upbeat. About 5 minutes for each training session is enough. If your training sessions go on too long, your dog may become frustrated and start making mistakes.
To start, take one of the treats in your hand, and allow your dog to see it. As soon as he is interested in the treat, give him the command “leave it,” and close your hand so that he cannot get the treat.
At first, most dogs will stick their nose in your hand and possibly nibble on your fingers or paw at your hand in an attempt to get to the treat. As soon as your dog stops trying and pulls away a little, praise him (or click your clicker) and give him a treat.
The treat you give him should be a different one then the one you told him to leave.
It’s very important that you keep the treat covered at all times when you are in the beginning stages of training this command. If you accidentally allow your dog to get a treat before you give the click or praise, he will try even harder to get the treat next time.
One or two mistakes will not make much of a difference, but if your dog is getting the treat a few times each training session, it is going to take him the time for your dog is consistently leaving the treat there, you can move it a little closer to him.
After several training sessions, you can begin to step away from the treat yourself. A good way to begin this is to drop a treat on the floor while you’re standing, and give the “leave it” command. Have a foot ready to cover the treat in case your dog makes a lunge towards it. Slowly increase your distance from the treat over several training sessions.
Soon you’ll be able to tell your dog to leave a treat on the floor when you are standing on the other side of the room.
The “wait” command tells your dog to wait to move forward until you release him. It’s helpful to prevent him from bolting out the door or out of his crate. It’s easy to teach your dog to wait.
Here’s how to do it:
You don’t need any special equipment to teach your dog to wait. In this instance, instead of giving your dog a food reward, he’ll be getting a life reward. In other words, being allowed to go outside or get out of his crate is all the reward he’ll need.
The “wait” command can be used in several situations. Use it before allowing your dog to go out into your yard, and before you walk him outside on a leash. You can also use “wait” when you are letting your dog out of his crate.
You don’t have to have a separate training session to train your dog to wait. You should work on the “wait” command every time you let him outside or release him from his crate. Once you begin working on “wait,” your dog should never be allowed to bolt outside or lunge out of his crate.
When your dog is ready to go outside or get out of his crate, start by giving him the command “wait".Open the door a little bit, and if lunges forward to get out, close the door quickly. Give him the command again. Each time you give the command, open the door slightly and close it quickly if your dog lunges forward to get out.
In the early stages of training, reward any hesitation.
If you give your dog the “wait” command, and he hesitates, praise him and open the door. As you open the door, use a command that lets him know it’s okay to move forward, such as “free” or “go ahead.”
Once your dog begins to “wait” when you give the command, make him wait a few more seconds before you release him.
Once he’s holding the “wait” command for several seconds or longer, you can begin to open the door a little wider. Be ready to close the door quickly any time your dog starts to bolt or lunge outside or out of his crate.
After practicing “wait” for a few days, your dog should be able to stand still with the door wide open until you give him the command “free” or “go ahead” to release him. Be sure to practice this from time to time and remember to frequently reward your dog for complying.
Does your dog know how to lie down on cue? All dogs should know how to lie down when asked. Teaching the “down” cue to your dog is almost as simple as training your dog to sit. This is an important basic command. Down can be very useful to help your dog relax in a hectic situation or to keep him in a stay for a long period of time. It’s also the first step in certain dog tricks, such as roll over.
When your dog is in the proper down position, his chest, elbows, and hocks are in contact with the ground. Ideally, your dog will remain down until you release him (many people use the word “okay” for the release cue). With practice, you can get your dog to perfect his down. This is an easy command to teach.
Before you begin, make sure you have plenty of tasty training treats to offer your dog. Ideally, the treats should be small, soft, and delicious to your dog. Set aside 5-10 minutes in a quiet area free of distractions. If you use clicker training with your dog, be sure to have your clicker handy.
Tail chasing can be completely natural and harmless in some dogs, but signal a serious behavior problem in others. Knowing the difference may come down to why she chases her tail. Here are some reasons dogs chase their tails:
Dogs sniff one another butts. It’s normal behavior.
Many people think of butt-sniffing among dogs as a type of greeting, but it’s so much more than that. Through sniffing, dogs are able to learn things about each other. Every animal has his or her own unique scent. This includes humans, dogs, cats, and all other animals. While you or I can only vaguely detect a personal scent, our dogs pick up a number of clues through their noses. These scents are especially potent around the genitals and anus (the location of the anal sacs, which collect odorous fluid).
Scents in this area can tell another dog about gender, reproductive status, diet, health status, temperament, and much more. A dog can also remember scents and therefore determine whether or not he has met this particular dog before.
So, when a dog meets another dog, they each have stories to tell. People make small talk at dinner parties.
Dogs sniff one another’s butts. It’s normal behavior.
Many dogs also try to find out more about humans through, ahem, crotch-sniffing. This is often much to our embarrassment. Don’t worry, it’s not a problem with you. It’s just canine nature. However, dog owners should discourage this behavior. If your dog is crotch-sniffing someone, please redirect him somewhere else! Otherwise, you may find that people really dislike your dog.
Normal Dog Head Tilt
Puppies are especially known for tilting their heads when they hear a new and interesting word or sound.
They may also do this when they see something they find strange and fascinating. When a dog tilts his head at a sound or sight, it almost seems as if he is saying “huh?” or “what is that?” He will cock his head to one side momentarily, then return his head to normal position. He might alternate the tilt to either side. Though the behavior is most common in puppies, it is considered normal in dogs of all ages.
Head tilting behavior in dogs is not fully understood. We know that we sometimes encourage it with our favorable responses. Our dogs learn that we like it, we find it cute, we give them attention, etc. They repeat the behavior, we reinforce it, and so on. In fact, you can even train your dog to tilt his head on cue!
There are theories that, by tilting his head, the dog is trying to get his head at a better angle to hear and/or see something. He might be trying to hear where a sound is coming from or look at something from a slightly different angle.
One brief study indicates that dogs may tilt their heads in an effort to better see our facial expressions past the visual obstructions of their muzzles. These theories make a lot of sense, but we may never know for certain why dogs tilt their heads. We do know that this type of behavior is relatively common, basically normal and seriously adorable!
Causes of Depression in Dogs
As a pet owner, how do you fight an invisible, inner enemy? The first step is recognizing the problem. Here are some of the causes of depression in dogs:
Physical Illness: Many health problems will cause dogs to act depressed. Contact your veterinarian right away if you notice signs of depression in your dog. It is important to first rule out a physical cause for your dog’s abnormal behavior before things get worse. If your vet does find a health problem, follow the treatment recommendations.
Hopefully, your dog’s depression will improve once he recovers from the illness. If not, or if your vet has ruled out all the possible physical causes of depression, it is time to start looking at mental/emotional reasons.
Grief: Dogs mourn the loss of human and animal companions just as you do. Perhaps a housemate or neighborhood dog he played with is gone (vacation, moved away, died).
Or, maybe a child in your home has grown up and moved out. There is no way to explain this to your dog. Losing a playmate, especially an in-home playmate is often a reason for canine depression. We may not notice it very often, but pets definitely do grieve.
Fear: Your dog may have a fear or phobia that makes him seem depressed. Dogs sometimes show fear in different ways than you would expect. Your dog may be trying not to appear scared since that might make him more vulnerable. Instead, he just retreats from normal activities to protect himself.
Environmental Changes: Moving to a new home, a general change of scenery (like a renovation), or even the weather can adversely affect a normally happy dog. You can’t explain the reasons for such a dramatic change. It usually takes time for you dog to adjust to major environmental changes.
You (the owner): Are you depressed or sick? Your dog will be able to pick up on your energy and may begin to feel similar to how you feel. Or, your dog might be depressed if you are gone a lot. This may be similar to separation anxiety (but instead of “acting out” your dog gets depressed).
Unknown: In some cases, there is no known reason for the depression.
This can be very frustrating for you as an owner.
Positive reinforcement can be used on a wide variety of behaviors.
Using training methods such as leash corrections or other forms of punishment is not effective for every dog. In fact, in some cases, punishment can serve to make a behavior problem worse.
Aggressive dogs are one example of this. Very often aggressive dogs become even more aggressive in the face of punishment. Fearful dogs also may not respond well to even the smallest punishment. A dog who is scared of certain people or situations may become even more fearful when punishment is used as a training method. However, clicker trainers have reported some great success with using positive reinforcement to train aggressive and fearful dogs.
Boredom is a major factor in many of our dogs’ common behavior problems, such as digging and excessive chewing. Training is a great way to help keep boredom at bay. You may be surprised at how much energy your dog will burn off simply by adding a few short, positive training sessions to his day.
If you keep training sessions short and upbeat, positive reinforcement training can be fun for you and your dog. Once dogs recognize that training leads to lots of good things for them, many dogs begin to view training sessions as playtime. Your dog will soon be offering you good behaviors in the hopes of getting his rewards, and you’re sure to get a smile out of his eagerness to learn.
For most of us, our dogs are our friends and companions. They become a part of our family. Positive reinforcement methods of training can help reinforce the bondwe have with our dogs. While other training methods may teach your dog how to behave, positive reinforcement will help you lead your dog while maintaining his trust and strengthening your relationship.
Put yourself in your dog’s place. Think about how you feel at work. If your boss asks you to do something and follows it up by physically pushing you to get you to do what he asks and never gives you a thank you afterward, how are you going to feel about him? Now, what if instead, your boss asks you to do something, and as soon as you’ve completed your task, he rushes in to say thank you and tells you what a good job you’re doing? Chances are you’ll feel much more favorably towards the boss who rewards you than the one who punishes you. And you’ll probably be willing to work harder for the boss who praises you, too.
The same is true for your dog. Your dog is much more likely to enjoy your company if he’s looking forward to being rewarded rather than fearing punishment. So spending time on positive reinforcement methods of training is sure to strengthen your bond with your dog.
Operant conditioning is a scientific term that describes the way animals learn from the consequences of certain behaviors. Positive reinforcement is a type of operant conditioning often used in dog training.
Clicker training, a common form of positive reinforcement, is a simple and effective training method. The clicker is a metal strip inside a small plastic box that makes a distinct clicking sound when pressed.
The click is much faster and more distinct than saying “good dog” and much more effective than using treats alone. To teach a dog the meaning of the click, a treat is given immediately after clicking. Once the dog learns the positive effects of the clicking sound, the clicker itself acts as a conditioned reinforcer.
According to Alyssa Walker of Walker Dog Training, clicker training is not meant to completely replace the use of treats. The sound of the click instantly tells the dog that what he has done will earn him a reward. To emphasize this, clicks should frequently be followed by treats. Otherwise, the clicker will lose its effectiveness. “While some clicker trainers may not give a reward every time they click, pretty much all clicker trainers continue to follow the click with a reward,” says Walker. “It’s very important to use strong rewards a lot during initial training stages, and treats are often the strongest reward for a dog.”
Here’s how to you can easily train your dog to respond to the clicker before moving on to basic and advanced training. The following steps are often referred to as “loading” the clicker.
Can your dog play dead? Playing dead is a great dog trick. It looks impressive when you’re showing off to your friends, but it is actually rather easy to train a dog to do. Teach your dog to play dead, and he can be the life of the party!
Grab your dog and a handful of his favorite treats, and you are ready to start training your dog to play dead. This is a great trick to train with a clicker.
If you decide to go the clicker training route, be sure to have your clicker handy.
It won’t be long before your dog falls to his side in response to you “shooting” him with your pointing finger and saying “bang!” Some people like to say a fun phrase, like this: “Would you rather be a cat, or would you rather be dead?” It’s hilarious to see a dog play dead after that one!
Remember to be patient and consistent. All dogs learn at a different pace. Keep training sessions upbeat and end the session if your dog seems frustrated, tired, or bored. Always try to end sessions on a positive note, even if that means switching to a simpler action like “sit” or down” as the last thing you do.